Table 1.

Analyte changes after metabolic surgery.

Adipose tissueAdipokines↓ leptin (→ ↓ catecholamine release)
↑ adiponectin
↓ IL-6
PancreasHormones↑ insulin
↓ glucagon
GutBile Acids↑ circulating bile acids
Hormones↓ orexigenic ghrelin
↑anorexigenic GLP-1, PYY, oxyntomodulin
CardiovascularLipids↓total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol
↑HDL cholesterol
LiverBiochemical↓ AST, ALP, ALT, and GGT
↑ branched chain amino acids
KidneyUrine↓urinary albumin creatinine ratio
↑ sodium excretion
Ovary↑ progesterone and metabolites, luteinizing hormone
↓ estradiol and metabolites
  • IL-6, interleukin-6; CRP, C-reactive protein; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide-1; PYY, peptide YY; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; GGT, gamma glutamyl-transferase; FGF21, fibroblast growth factor-21.