Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of patients included in the transcardiac gradient clinical study.

Patient characteristicsOverall (n = 137)No MACEa (n = 102)MACEa (n = 35)P value
Age, years66 [57; 77]b66 [56; 77]65 [59; 75]0.95
Male, %7774890.10
BMI,c kg/m227.6 [24.9; 31.9]27.9 [25.0; 32.1]26.5 [23.3; 31.7]0.23
Diabetes, %342557<0.001
Hypertension, %6667630.69
Hyperlipidemia, %6463690.68
History of smoking, %5454541.00
Ischemic cardiomyopathy, %4645490.84
History of atrial fibrillation, %3636341.00
History of myocardial infarction,%4342460.84
History of valve replacement7930.45
NYHA class, %0.65
    II, %9106
    III, %858586
    IV, %659
Minnesota QoL Score44 [19; 60]39 [18; 59]56 [33; 64]0.07
Six-minute walk test, feet934 ± 389976 ± 382789 ± 3860.07
Medications
    ACEi/ARB, %8083710.14
    β blockers, %8587800.40
    Aldosterone antagonists, %3123540.001
    Diuretics, %7876830.49
Laboratory results
    Creatinine, mg/dLd1.22 [0.98; 1.55]1.16 [0.95; 1.50]1.40 [1.08; 1.91]0.002
    eGFR, mL/min61 ± 2164 ± 2153 ± 200.006
ECG parameters
    Normal sinus rhythm, %6969710.83
    Atrial fibrillation, %1413170.57
    Heart rate, bpm72 ± 1272 ± 1272 ± 110.90
    QRS duration, msec160 [142; 178]164 [149; 179]150 [134; 172]0.02
    LBBB, %5359340.02
Echocardiographic parameters
    LVEF, %26 ± 726 ± 724 ± 70.051
    LV dimensions, mm
        EDD62 [57; 67]62 [57; 66]63 [58; 70]0.27
        ESD54 [48; 58]53 [48; 58]54 [49; 62]0.41
    LV volumes, cm3
        EDV217 [178; 280]208 [173; 265]235 [198; 329]0.04
        ESV157 [128; 205]152 [118; 197]168 [146; 253]0.02
        Left atrial diameter, mm45 [41; 49]44 [40; 49]47 [43; 50]0.07
    Mitral regurgitation0.002
        None1/126 (1)0/93 (0)1/33 (3)
        Trace26/126 (21)22/93 (24)4/33 (12)
        Mild43/126 (34)38/93 (41)5/33 (15)
        Moderate42/126 (33)26/93 (28)16/33 (48)
        Severe14/126 (11)7/93 (8)7/33 (21)
    RV systolic pressure, mmHg42 [35; 51]42 [35; 48]48 [38; 57]0.04
  • a Occurrence for MACE was followed for 2 years.

  • b Values in brackets are quartiles.

  • c BMI, body mass index; ACEi, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; LBBB, left bundle branch block; EDD, end-diastolic dimension; ESD, end-systolic dimension; EDV, end-diastolic volume; ESV, end-systolic volume; QoL, quality of life; RV, right ventricular.

  • d To convert mg/dL to mmol/L for creatinine concentrations, multiply by 0.0884.