Table 2.

Relationship between plasma concentrations of TMAO, choline or betaine, and cardiovascular and mortality risks.a

HRMajor adverse cardiac events at 3 yearsAll-cause mortality at 5 years
TMAO, μmol/L<3.23.2–6.3≥6.3<3.23.2–6.3≥6.3
    Unadjusted model11.95 (1.31–2.9)**3.03 (2.08–4.42)***11.77 (1.19–2.64)**3.63 (2.53–5.21)***
    Adjusted model11.75 (1.15–2.66)**1.94 (1.23–3.05)**11.46 (0.96–2.22)1.85 (1.21–2.84)**
    Events36/40171/414102/40138/40166/414123/401
Choline, μmol/L<9.19.1–12.3≥12.3<9.19.1–12.3≥12.3
    Unadjusted model11.86 (1.28–2.71)**2.2 (1.52–3.17)***11.81 (1.24–2.63)**2.64 (1.85–3.77)***
    Adjusted model11.55 (1.03–2.33)*1.38 (0.89–2.13)11.41 (0.95–2.09)1.36 (0.91–2.05)
    Events42/40178/41289/40343/40177/412107/403
Betaine, μmol/L<33.233.2–45.7≥45.7<33.233.2–45.7≥45.7
    Unadjusted model11.11 (0.78–1.59)1.62 (1.16–2.27)**11.3 (0.92–1.84)1.88 (1.35–2.63)**
    Adjusted model11.08 (0.74–1.58)1.41 (0.97–2.03)11.32 (0.92–1.91)1.57 (1.09–2.26)*
    Events56/40065/41588/40155/40074/41598/401
  • a Adjusted for traditional risk factors include age, sex, history of cardiovascular disease, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, hsCRP, log-transformed Hb A1c, log-transformed eGFR, log-transformed body mass index, and history of heart failure;

  • * P < 0.05,

  • ** P < 0.01,

  • *** P < 0.001.