Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of diabetic cohort stratified according to TMAO tertiles.

Total (n = 1216)Tertile 1 (n = 401)Tertile 2 (n = 414)Tertile 3 (n = 401)P value
Age, years64.4 ± 10.261.1 ± 9.765.2 ± 9.966.9 ± 10.1<0.001
Male, %586457530.004
Hypertension, %79747688<0.001
Smoking, %636560650.355
History of MI, %474346510.067
History of stroke, %857120.002
History of CABG,a %34283341<0.001
History of PCI, %353634350.796
LDL cholesterol, mg/dLb95 (76–115)96 (77–114)95 (79–118)93 (73–114)0.203
HDL cholesterol, mg/dLb33 (27–40)35 (28–41)33 (28–39)32 (26–38)<0.001
hsCRP, mg/L3.3 (1.3–8.3)2.9 (1.2–8.2)3.2 (1.4–7.9)4.0 (1.4–8.8)0.155
eGFR, mL · min−1 · (1.73 m2)−182 (62–94)92 (83–100)80 (65–93)61 (45–82)<0.001
ACE inhibitor/ARB, %595560630.038
Statins, %646764620.335
β-Blockers, %666666660.982
Aspirin, %757678720.112
Glucose-lowering drugs, %55465464<0.001
TMAO, μmol/L4.4 (2.8–7.7)2.3 (1.7–2.8)4.4 (3.7–5.3)9.7 (7.8–14.9)<0.001
Choline, μmol/L10.6 (8.4–13.5)9.2 (7.7–11.1)10.4 (8.6–13.2)12.6 (10.0–16.2)<0.001
Betaine, μmol/L39 (30.7–49.6)37.6 (30.6–47)38.8 (30.1–49.7)40.7 (31.7–51.9)0.022
  • a CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker.

  • b To convert mg/dL to mmol/L, multiply cholesterol by 0.02586.