Table 2.

Detection limits of ultrasensitive PSA assays.

PSA assayDetection limit, ng/LReference
Conventional100–500Ferguson et al. (39)
Third generation1–10Ferguson et al. (39)
Immune-PCR0.6McDermed et al. (44)
Gold nanoparticle0.3Thaxton et al. (45)
Digital/bead-base0.05Wilson et al. (46)
Single molecule0.014Rissin et al. (47)
Silver nanoprism plasmonic biosensor0.004–0.01Liang et al. (5)
Electroluminescence0.002 (complexed PSA), 0.02 (free PSA)Nikolenko et al. (6)