Table 2. Period prevalence estimates of abnormal blood profiles in elite track and field athletes.
naPrevalence M1, %bPrevalence M2, %
Males402812 (10–15)12 (10–15)
    Country A20548 (35–63)78 (54–99)
    Country B3523 (1–11)1 (0–2)
    Country C25723 (15–30)28 (17–36)
    Country D2086 (3–19)5 (0–17)
    Country E16018 (11–30)18 (7–28)
    Country F1486 (1–25)2 (0–22)
    Country H16039 (20–54)51 (21–87)
Females326118 (15–21)18 (15–21)
    Country A44546 (35–58)50 (35–68)
    Country B1308 (4–34)2 (0–11)
    Country C14712 (4–20)14 (1–28)
    Country D1031 (0–11)0 (0–3)
    Country E10611 (7–20)8 (1–14)
    Country F1106 (3–19)0 (0–13)
    Country H6536 (13–62)36 (5–66)
All728914 (12–16)14 (12–16)
All nonendurance13293 (0–8)1 (0–3)
All endurance499918 (15–22)19 (16–22)
  • a n, Number of samples from which the estimates were derived. Prevalence M1, minimal estimates without any assumptions on the doping method. Prevalence M2, estimates obtained assuming doping with rEPO microdoses.

  • b 95% CI estimated by bootstrapping methods, with any negative estimates rounded toward 0%.