Table 1. Characteristics of the PRIDE cohort (stratified by 4-year death status and derivation subset).a
CharacteristicEntire PRIDE cohortData available for model construction
All cohort (N=599)Alive at 4 y (n=413)Dead at 4 y (n=186)Derivation cohort (n=517)
Age, years62.5 (17.1)57.6 (16.6)73.3 (12.8)63.4 (16.5)
Female sex,%295 (49.3%)207 (50.1%)88 (47.3%)247 (47.8%)
White,%522 (87.2%)347 (84.0%)175 (94.1%)458 (88.6%)
History of
    Current smoking129 (21.5%)96 (23.2%)33 (17.7%)118 (22.8%)
    Former smoking263 (43.9%)169 (40.9%)94 (50.5%)230 (44.5%)
    Hypertension292 (48.8%)180 (43.6%)112 (60.2%)261 (50.5%)
    Diabetes157 (26.2%)93 (22.5%)64 (34.4%)140 (27.1%)
    Myocardial infarction78 (13.0%)42 (10.2%)36 (19.4%)72 (13.9%)
    Prior HF150 (25.0%)69 (16.7%)81 (43.6%)134 (25.9%)
Medication use prior to presentation
    β-blocker228 (38.1%)133 (32.2%)95 (51.1%)203 (39.3%)
    Loop diuretic177 (29.6%)89 (21.6%)88 (47.3%)156 (30.2%)
    Digoxin64 (10.7%)35 (8.5%)29 (15.6%)52 (10.1%)
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor125 (20.9%)76 (18.4%)49 (26.3%)111 (21.5%)
    Spironolactone21 (3.5%)6 (1.5%)15 (8.1%)20 (3.9%)
    Aspirin183 (30.6%)114 (27.6%)69 (37.1%)169 (32.7%)
Findings at presentation
    Systolic blood pressure, mmHg136.7 (27.5)137.2 (25.8)135.6 (31.1)136.4 (27.6)
    Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg76.5 (14.8)77.6 (14.4)74.0 (15.5)76.3 (14.6)
    Body-mass index, kg/m228.3 (6.8)28.9 (7.0)26.8 (6.2)28.1 (6.6)
    Rales156 (26.0%)86 (20.8%)70 (37.6%)145 (28.1%)
    Murmur67 (11.2%)37 (9.0%)30 (16.1%)56 (10.8%)
    Lower-extremity edema147 (24.5%)82 (19.9%)65 (35.0%)137 (26.5%)
    Atrial fibrillation75 (12.5%)35 (8.5%)40 (21.5%)66 (12.8%)
    Radiographic pulmonary edema101 (16.9%)41 (9.9%)60 (32.3%)92 (17.8%)
Laboratory data at presentation
    Blood urea nitrogen, mg/L220 (143)185 (105)294 (182)224 (146)
    Creatinine, mg/L11 (4)10 (3)13 (5)11 (4)
    Creatinine clearance, mL/min/1.73 m274.1 (30.3)79.4 (26.7)62.3 (34.2)73.6 (31.2)
    White blood count, M/L9.8 (5.5)9.5 (5.6)10.4 (5.3)10.0 (5.6)
    Hematocrit, %38.1 (6.1)39.1 (5.7)35.9 (6.6)38.0 (6.1)
    Hemoglobin, g/L131 (21)135 (18)120 (23)130 (21)
    NT-proBNP, ng/L, median (IQR)b461.4 (81.5, 2660)205.7 (56.0, 971.5)2777 (829.6, 9112)493.7 (83.8, 2749)
    sST2, μg/L, median (IQR)0.23 (0.09, 0.67)0.14 (0.06, 0.42)0.56 (0.29, 1.44)0.24 (0.11, 0.73)
    C-reactive protein, mg/L, median (IQR)10.2 (2.6, 37.5)6.3 (2.0, 26.6)25.7 (6.7, 71.4)11.0 (2.6, 42.0)
    Galectin-3, μg/L, median (IQR)7.5 (5.9, 10.2)7.0 (5.4, 9.0)9.2 (7.2, 12.1)7.6 (5.9, 10.5)
    Eotaxin, ng/L, median (IQR)33.4 (22.0, 46.8)31.8 (20.6, 44.4)36.8 (24.3, 51.8)33.9 (22.7, 47.5)
Final diagnosis of acutely decompensated HF209 (34.9%)96 (23.2%)113 (60.8%)187 (36.2%)
  • a Values are prevalence (%) or mean (SD) except where indicated.

  • b IQR, interquartile range.