Table 1.

Proatherogenic effects of CRP.

Endothelial cellsMonocyte-macrophagesSmooth muscle cells
Increased VCAM, ICAM-1, E-selectin, MCP-1, monocyte adhesionIncreased tissue factorIncreased AT-1 and VSMC migration and proliferation
Increased PAI-1, IL-8, CD40/CD40L, MMP-1, ET-1, M-CSFIncreased superoxide and myeloperoxidaseIncreased neointimal formation in vivo
Decreased tPAIncreased proinflammatory cytokines and decreased IL-10Increased iNOS
Decreased prostacyclinIncreased CD11b, CCR2Increased ROS
Increased superoxide, iNOSPromoted OxLDL uptake and decreases cholesterol effluxIncreased tissue factor
Decreased eNOS (uncoupling)Increased MMPs, HMGB1
Promoted endothelial dysfunction in vivoIncreased M-CSF and proliferation
Impaired EPC number and function in vitro