Table 5.

Minimally invasive and noninvasive methodologies for in vivo glucose monitoring.1

Transcutaneous needle-type enzyme electrodes
Totally implanted sensors
 Enzyme electrodes
 Near-infrared fluorescence-based
Sampling technologies
 Microdialysis
 Reverse iontophoresis
Noninvasive technologies
 Near-infrared spectroscopy
 Light scattering
 Photoacoustic spectroscopy