Table 1.

Theophylline and caffeine information.

DrugHalf-life (range), hTime to steady-stateVD,1 L/kgProtein bindingTherapeutic rangeCritical valueRoute/interval
TheophyllineAdults (healthy) nonsmokers, 9 (3–12); smokers, 4; adults (liver cirrhosis), 10–56;2–3 days0.5–0.755–65%; <36%, neonates and adults with liver cirrhosis8–20 mg/L, asthma; 6–11 mg/L, neonatal apnea>20 mg/LOral rapid release, 4–6 h; slow release, 12–24 h
children, 4 (2–10);1–2 days
infants (4–52 weeks of age), 3–14;1–5 days
neonates/premature infants, 30;∼6 days
healthy newborn, 24∼5 days
CaffeineNeonate, 41–230NA0.6–0.729–43%8–20 mg/L>50 mg/L
  • 1 VD, volume of distribution; and NA, not applicable.