Table 1.

Summary of key guideline recommendations.1

A. Germ cell tumors
ACBI2 (53)AJCC (28)EAU (22)EGTM (10)(21)ESMO (54)(55)NACB (9)(10)SIGN (18)
AFP and hCG for
 ScreeningNNNNN
 Diagnosis/case-findingYYYYY
 Staging/prognosisYYYYYYY
 Detecting recurrenceYYYYYY
 Monitoring therapyYYYYYY
AFP for differential diagnosis of NSGCTYYYY
LDH for
 Diagnosis/case-findingYYYYY
 Staging/prognosisYYYYY
 Detecting recurrenceYYYYY
 Monitoring therapyYYYYY
B. Colorectal cancer
ACBI (53)AJCC (28)(29)ASCO (7)EGTM (56)ESMO (57)(58)NACB (9)(10)SIGN (59)SOR (34)
CEA for
 ScreeningNNNNNNN
 Diagnosis/case-findingNNNNNNN
 Staging/prognosisYYYYNY
 Detecting recurrence3YY4YNY5
 Monitoring therapy3YY4YNY5
 Screening for hepatic metastases6YYYY
C. Breast cancer
ACBI (53)AJCC (28)ASCO (7)(8)EGTM (35)NACB (9)(10)SOR (12)
ER and PR measurement
 In all primary lesionsYYYY
 To select patients for endocrine therapyYYY
HER-2/neu (c-erbB-2) overexpression
 To select patients for Herceptin therapyYYY
CA15-3 or BR27.29 for
 ScreeningNNNN
 Diagnosis/case-findingNNNN
 Prognosis/predictionNNNNN
 Follow-up/monitoring of treatmentYN7YYY
CEA for
 ScreeningNNNN
 Diagnosis/case-findingNN8NY9
 Prognosis/predictionNNYNY9
 Follow-up/monitoring of treatmentN10YY11Y9
D. Ovarian cancer
ACBI (53)AJCC (28)EGTM (10)(60)ESMO (61)NACB (9)(10)SOR (13)
CA125 for
 ScreeningNN12NN13N
 Diagnosis/case-findingN12N12NN12Y
 Staging/prognosisYNYYYY
 Detecting recurrenceYYYYY
 Monitoring therapyYYYY
CEA or CA19.9 if CA125 not increased at diagnosisY
AFP and hCG to exclude a germ cell tumor in young womenY
E. Prostate cancer
ACBI (53)ACS (27)(62)AJCC (28)AUA (38)EAU (63)EGTM (64)NACB (9)(10)
PSA for
 Screening (with DRE)NY14Y14Y15Y
 As an aid to diagnosis (with DRE)YYYYYY
 PrognosisNYN16Y
 Monitoring patients after diagnosisYYYY17
% Free:Total PSA
 As an aid to diagnosis when PSA is 4–10 μg/L and DRE is negativeYYY
 Follow-up of prostatic cancerN
Age-specific reference intervalsNY
F. Lung, neuroendocrine, and thyroid cancers
Lung cancerBTAEGTMNACB
 NSE in differential diagnosisY (43)
 CYFRA 21-1, CEA, and/or NSE for follow-up and monitoring of therapyY (43)
Neuroendocrine tumors
 Urinary catecholamines, vanillylmandelic acid, and/or homovanillic acid as indicators for pheochromocytoma and neuroblastomaY (9)(10)
 Calcitonin for diagnosis and monitoring of medullary thyroid carcinomaY (45)Y (10)(46)
Thyroid cancer
 ThyroglobulinY (45)Y (46)