Table 5.

Impact of spironolactone on outcome, stratified by galectin-3.

SpironolactoneaGalectin-3 lowGalectin-3 highP for interactionc
nEvent rateHRb (yes/no)95% CIPnEvent rateHR (yes/no)95% CIP
TIME-CHF109110
    Overall mortality12 (11)31 (28)
        Univariate4.650.60–35.980.140.930.43–2.020.860.15
        Multivariate4.740.50–44.760.181.330.33–5.400.690.23
        Propensity3.740.40–35.210.240.830.35–1.970.680.51
    Death or HF hospitalization27 (25)47 (43)
        Univariate3.701.11–12.280.031.300.66–2.570.440.14
        Multivariate2.720.70–10.580.152.370.83–6.760.110.22
        Propensity5.521.45–21.00.011.430.68–3.020.350.71
    Death or all-cause hospitalization60 (55)73 (66)
        Univariate1.840.99–3.400.050.930.56–1.550.780.09
        Multivariate1.850.86–4.010.120.960.48–1.950.920.11
        Propensity1.950.95–3.990.070.950.54–1.670.860.19
GISSI-HF480151
    Overall mortality95 (20)68 (45)
        Univariate1.080.72–1.630.701.250.78–2.030.360.70
        Multivariate0.950.63–1.440.821.190.70–2.010.530.79
        Propensity0.850.56–1.300.461.230.73–2.070.440.75
    Death or HF hospitalization127 (27)56 (37)
        Univariate0.930.65–1.320.681.230.73–2.090.440.36
        Multivariate0.850.59–1.220.371.080.61–1.920.790.55
        Propensity0.780.54–1.140.201.190.67–2.110.560.38
    Death or all-cause hospitalization292 (61)108 (72)
        Univariate1.070.85–1.340.581.471.01–2.160.050.19
        Multivariate1.000.79–1.271.01.581.03–2.410.040.25
        Propensity1.000.78–1.280.991.490.98–2.260.060.19
  • a Univariate: univariately performed; multivariate: corrected for age, gender, BMI, eGFR, cause of HF, NYHA class, diabetes, LVEF, systolic blood pressure and heart rate; propensity: corrected for propensity score (likelihood of receiving the drug based on baseline characteristics).

  • b HR, hazard ratio.

  • c P value for interaction between low/high galectin-3 and HF drug.