Table 6.

Associations between GGT serum enzyme activity levels and all-cause mortality in clinically relevant subgroups.a

SubgroupnGGT quartile, IU/LP for trendP for interaction
1–12 IU/L13–19 IU/L20–34≥35
Sex0.6965
    Male1456111.00 (reference)1.08 (0.72–1.61)1.38 (0.94–2.02)1.56 (1.06–2.31)0.002
    Female1146491.00 (reference)1.06 (0.76–1.49)1.20 (0.80–1.80)1.77 (1.12–2.82)0.031
Age, years0.6192
    <502169151.00 (reference)1.02 (0.70–1.48)1.26 (0.85–1.88)1.39 (0.90–2.14)0.078
    ≥50433451.00 (reference)1.18 (0.83–1.67)1.55 (1.11–2.18)1.76 (1.23–2.52)<0.001
BMI, kg/m20.0358
    <251806341.00 (reference)0.92 (0.69–1.22)1.06 (0.79–1.42)1.52 (1.12–2.07)0.002
    ≥25796041.00 (reference)1.46 (0.83–2.57)1.87 (1.08–3.23)1.59 (0.90–2.83)0.245
Abdominal obesity0.3179
    No1165281.00 (reference)1.07 (0.70–1.63)1.19 (0.78–1.83)1.49 (0.95–2.34)0.049
    Yes347811.00 (reference)2.14 (0.97–4.74)1.75 (0.78–3.91)1.88 (0.82–4.34)0.424
Metabolic syndrome
    No2162211.00 (reference)1.01 (0.76–1.33)1.19 (0.90–1.57)1.48 (1.10–2.00)0.0030.6257
    Yes439161.00 (reference)1.06 (0.57–1.95)1.29 (0.72–2.32)1.24 (0.68–2.27)0.421
Smoking0.4438
    No1828981.00 (reference)1.02 (0.77–1.35)1.29 (0.97–1.72)1.64 (1.20–2.24)0.001
    Former or current726301.00 (reference)1.05 (0.59–1.85)1.24 (0.72–2.12)1.31 (0.75–2.28)0.193
Drinking0.0992
    No1014261.00 (reference)1.13 (0.82–1.55)1.43 (1.02–1.99)2.05 (1.42–2.96)<0.001
    Yes1513741.00 (reference)0.86 (0.57–1.30)1.06 (0.71–1.57)1.18 (0.79–1.76)0.076
Regular exercise0.2883
    Yes440661.00 (reference)0.64 (0.34–1.19)0.96 (0.53–1.75)1.25 (0.66–2.37)0.187
    No2130531.00 (reference)1.13 (0.86–1.49)1.37 (1.04–1.80)1.58 (1.17–2.12)0.001
Fatty liver0.2106
    No1916561.00 (reference)1.01 (0.77–1.32)1.26 (0.96–1.66)1.68 (1.26–2.26)<0.001
    Yes685341.00 (reference)0.98 (0.49–1.96)1.01 (0.52–1.95)0.95 (0.48–1.85)0.762
NAFLD or AFLD
    NAFLD544981.00 (reference)0.95 (0.47–1.89)0.92 (0.47–1.78)0.83 (0.41–1.65)0.472
    AFLD123571.00 (reference)2.05 (0.26–16.09)2.00 (0.27–14.75)0.581
Diabetes0.6804
    No2498561.00 (reference)1.02 (0.79–1.33)1.28 (0.98–1.67)1.39 (1.04–1.86)0.007
    Yes104021.00 (reference)1.16 (0.50–2.67)1.38 (0.62–3.05)2.20 (0.99–4.89)0.007
History of CVD0.1947
    No2464971.00 (reference)0.99 (0.77–1.28)1.21 (0.94–1.57)1.38 (1.05–1.82)0.005
    Yes137631.00 (reference)3.72 (0.81–17.0)5.10 (1.15–22.60)7.85 (1.73–35.56)0.002
  • a Data are adjusted HR (95% CI). Adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol intake, regular exercise, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, history of stroke, history of heart disease, fatty liver, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.