Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of patients according to vital status after 7 years of follow-up.a

CharacteristicsAliveDeadP
n259350910
Age, years40.2 (9.97)53.4 (13.4)<0.001
Male sex55.972.9<0.001
BMI, kg/m223.5 (3.1)23.8 (3.2)0.0050
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg114.8 (14.6)124.6 (19.2)<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg74.3 (10.1)78.9 (11.8)<0.001
Glucose, mg/dL95.0 (16.9)106.7 (38.2)<0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL195.4 (35.3)203.7 (41.8)<0.001
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL113.0 (29.8)116.5 (34.2)0.0004
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL55.4 (12.4)54.2 (13.4)0.0055
Triglycerides, mg/dL106 (74–156)128 (90–186)<0.001
ALT, IU/L25.4 (15.6)26.9 (15.8)<0.001
AST, IU/L24.1 (8.8)28.2 (16.4)<0.001
GGT, IU/L19 (12–34)26 (16–46)<0.001
Total bilirubin, mg/dL0.9 (0.3)0.9 (0.4)0.6057
Conjugated bilirubin, mg/dL0.3 (0.1)0.3 (0.1)0.065
Smoking status<0.001
    Never smoker54.937.8
    Former smoker16.825.2
    Current smoker28.437.0
Alcohol use, g/day<0.001
    040.140.8
    <2046.136.6
    ≥2013.822.5
Regular exerciseb17.115.90.311
History of heart disease5.05.40.567
History of stroke0.42.3<0.001
Diabetes4.016.5<0.001
Hypertension17.542.3<0.001
Metabolic syndromec16.831.0<0.001
Fatty liver0.108
    No73.771.3
    Yes26.328.7
NAFLD or AFLD0.045
    NAFLD21.623.3
    AFLD4.96.6
  • a Data are mean (SD), median (IQR), or %. To convert glucose in mg/dL to mmol/L, multiply by 0.05551; to convert cholesterol in mg/dL to mmol/L, multiply by 0.02586; to convert bilirubin in mg/dL to μmol/L, multiply by 17.10.

  • b More than 3 times/week.

  • c For estimating metabolic syndrome, waist circumference was available in only 58% of the whole cohort. Therefore the denominators for calculating metabolic syndrome in the group who were alive was 45757, and in the group who had died, 386.