Background: We sought to develop estimates of biological variation (BV) for 9 enzymes in blood serum as part of the European Biological Variation Study.
Methods: Ninety-one healthy study participants (38 male and 53 female, 21–69 years old) were phlebotomized in each of 10 consecutive weeks at 6 European laboratories. The same preanalytical sample-handling protocol was followed at each center before transport to San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy, for analysis. Sera were stored at −80ü°C before analysis in duplicate within a single run on an ADVIA 2400 Clinical Chemistry System (Siemens Healthcare) following a protocol designed to minimize analytical imprecision. Assay traceability was established using frozen sera with target values assigned by reference methods. The results were subjected to outlier analysis before CV-ANOVA to deliver valid BV estimates. Results for 9 enzymes were subsequently partitioned for graphical display allowing visual assessment of the effects of country of origin, sex, and age on BV estimates.
Results: We found no effect of country upon the observed variation, but overall sex-related differences were evident for alanine amino transferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and creatine kinase (CK). The following estimates for within-subject BV (CVI) and between-subject BV (CVG), respectively, were obtained: ALT: 9.3%, 28.2%; aspartate aminotransferase : 9.5%, 20.3%; GGT: 8.9%, 41.7%; alkaline phosphatase : 5.3%, 24.9%; lactate dehydrogenase: 5.2%, 12.6%; CK: 14.5%, 31.5%; amylase: 6.8%, 30.4%; and pancreatic α-amylase: 6.3%, 24.9%; and lipase (LIP): 7.7%, 23.8%.
Conclusions: All CVI and some CVG estimates were lower than those reported in the online BV 2014 updated database. Analytical performance specifications derived from BV can be applied internationally.
- Received for publication December 14, 2016.
- Accepted for publication January 24, 2017.
- © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry