Background: The application of pharmacogenetic results requires demonstrable correlations between a test result and an indicated specific course of action. We developed a computational decision-support tool that combines patient-specific genotype and phenotype information to provide strategic dosage guidance. This tool, through estimating quantitative and temporal parameters associated with the metabolism- and concentration-dependent response to warfarin, provides the necessary patient-specific context for interpreting international normalized ratio (INR) measurements.
Methods: We analyzed clinical information, plasma S-warfarin concentration, and CYP2C9 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9) and VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1) genotypes for 137 patients with stable INRs. Plasma S-warfarin concentrations were evaluated by VKORC1 genotype (−1639G>A). The steady-state plasma S-warfarin concentration was calculated with CYP2C9 genotype–based clearance rates and compared with actual measurements.
Results: The plasma S-warfarin concentration required to yield the target INR response is significantly (P < 0.05) associated with VKORC1 −1639G>A genotype (GG, 0.68 mg/L; AG, 0.48 mg/L; AA, 0.27 mg/L). Modeling of the plasma S-warfarin concentration according to CYP2C9 genotype predicted 58% of the variation in measured S-warfarin concentration: Measured [S-warfarin] = 0.67(Estimated [S-warfarin]) + 0.16 mg/L.
Conclusions: The target interval of plasma S-warfarin concentration required to yield a therapeutic INR can be predicted from the VKORC1 genotype (pharmacodynamics), and the progressive changes in S-warfarin concentration after repeated daily dosing can be predicted from the CYP2C9 genotype (pharmacokinetics). Combining the application of multivariate equations for estimating the maintenance dose with genotype-guided pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling provides a powerful tool for maximizing the value of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 test results for ongoing application to patient care.
- © 2009 The American Association for Clinical Chemistry